Euclid by [[Jusepe de Ribera]], {{circa|1630–1635}}{{sfn|Getty}} Euclid (; ; BC) was an ancient Greek mathematician active as a geometer and logician. Considered the "father of geometry", he is chiefly known for the ''Elements'' treatise, which established the foundations of geometry that largely dominated the field until the early 19th century. His system, now referred to as Euclidean geometry, involved new innovations in combination with a synthesis of theories from earlier Greek mathematicians, including Eudoxus of Cnidus, Hippocrates of Chios, Thales and Theaetetus. With Archimedes and Apollonius of Perga, Euclid is generally considered among the greatest mathematicians of antiquity, and one of the most influential in the history of mathematics.

Very little is known of Euclid's life, and most information comes from the philosophers Proclus and Pappus of Alexandria many centuries later. Until the early Renaissance he was often mistaken for the earlier philosopher Euclid of Megara, causing his biography to be substantially revised. It is generally agreed that he spent his career under Ptolemy I in Alexandria and lived around 300 BC, after Plato and before Archimedes. There is some speculation that Euclid was a student of the Platonic Academy and later taught at the Musaeum. Euclid is often regarded as bridging the earlier Platonic tradition in Athens with the later tradition of Alexandria.

In the ''Elements'', Euclid deduced the theorems from a small set of axioms. He also wrote works on perspective, conic sections, spherical geometry, number theory, and mathematical rigour. In addition to the ''Elements'', Euclid wrote a central early text in the optics field, ''Optics'', and lesser-known works including ''Data'' and ''Phaenomena''. Euclid's authorship of two other texts—''On Divisions of Figures'', ''Catoptrics''—has been questioned. He is thought to have written many now lost works. Provided by Wikipedia
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  1. 1
    by Euclid
    Published 1983
    Toronto, Ont., Canada : Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, c1983.
    vi, 425 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
  2. 2
    by Euclid
    Published 1500
    Parisii : Per impressore[m] VVolfga[n]gu[m] hopylium, 1500.
    [3] leaves ; 28 cm.
  3. 3
    by Euclid
    Published 1505
    Venetiis [Venice] : In [a]edibus Ioannis Tacuini, [1505]
    [240] leaves : ill. (diagrams)
    Other Authors: ...Euclid...
  4. 4
    by Euclid
    Published 1576
    En Sevilla : en casa de Alonso de Robies, 1576.
    121 [i.e. 242], [2] p. : ill.
  5. 5
    by Euclid
    Published 1516
    Parisiis, in officina Henrici Stephani [1516]
    261 numb. l.
  6. 6
    by Euclid
    Published 1564
    Coloniæ, apud Maternum Cholinum, 1564.
    15 p. l., 159 numb. l. (i.e. 318 p.) diagrs. 17 x 10 cm.
  7. 7
    by Euclid
    Published 1500
    Parisii : Per impressore[m] VVolfga[n]gu[m] hopylium, 1500.
    1 online resource ([3] leaves)
    Center for Research Libraries
    Online Resource
  8. 8
    by Euclid
    Published 1901
    Bombay : Government Central Book Depôt, 1901-1902.
    2 v.
  9. 9
    by Simson, Robert, 1687-1768
    Published 1838
    Philadelphia, Desilver, Thomas, 1838.
    iv, [5]-416 p. IV pl. (diagrs., 2 fold.) 23 cm.
    Other Authors: ...Euclid...
  10. 10
    Published 1859
    Wyandot, Kansas : S. D. Macdonald, printer to the Convention, 1859.
    1 online resource (xlvi, 439, 16 pages)
    Other Authors: ...Drapier, Ariel E. (Ariel Euclid)...
    LLMC Digital
    Online Resource
  11. 11
    Paris : Guy Marchand, 1495.
    [44] p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
    Other Authors: ...Euclid...
  12. 12
    Nijmegen : Ingenium Publishers, 1984.
    2 v. : ill. ; 21 cm.
    Other Authors: ...Euclid...

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